Tag Archives: Sustainability

5 Ways to Put Away Food for the Winter

IMG_2770It’s mid-July and the garden at the Williams Street Farmhouse is overflowing with vegetables and berries.  Although it feels like summer has just begun, this is the time we normally start putting things away for the winter.  Over the years, we have experimented with various ways to preserve our garden bounty, and have found there is no one-size-fits-all solution.  What we use over the winter depends very much on how we cook, which is constantly changing.  One year we use up every last parsnip, and have shredded frozen zucchini left over and the next year it is opposite. Every year we try something new and keep finding amazing products like Matt’s fermented tomatillo salsa.

No matter which method you choose, start with best quality produce for the tastiest and most nutritious results.  Vegetables that are overly mature do not store well.  Also, process vegetables as soon as possible after you harvest them. Produce continues to respire after harvest and enzymes begin breaking it down, affecting flavor and nutrition.

  1. Canning: Canned produce is convenient because it is shelf stable and will last for years. It requires no thawing or cleaning or rehydrating. Unfortunately, it is laborious, destroys up to 65% or the original nutrition value, and can be dangerous if not done properly. We can tomatoes, jam, applesauce, and bone broth.
  2. IMG_2054Cold Storage: Easy when you have a good spot to do it, as the veggies require minimal preparation. Temperature needs to stay 35-40º and humidity around 90-95% for optimum storage for most vegetables.   We insulated a small room in our unheated garage and put in a heater on a thermostat. You can also adapt a crawl space or minimally heated garage.
  3. Drying: A simple and ancient method of preserving food, dried foods are easily stored. The nutritional content is similar to frozen foods, and the flavor is better than canned. Many herbs lend themselves well for drying, although you can dry many fruits and vegetables as well. Most vegetables need to be blanched before drying.
  4. Freezing: Freezing is an easy way to store food that preserves many nutrients. Generally vegetables that are eaten cooked as well as already cooked foods freeze well. The downside is that you can quickly run out of freezer space and freezers are expensive to buy and run. It also takes a little planning to take what you need out of the freezer ahead of time so it can defrost slowly.
  5. DSC_0457Fermentation: The only method of food preservation that actually increases the nutritional content of the food! Fermented food is extremely good for you, and can actually heal many gut problems. Many people are familiar with sauerkraut, but you can ferment almost anything. Fermented food must be stored in a refrigerator or cold storage to slow fermentation.

One of the most difficult aspects of leaving this fall is not having our normal food stores.  I can’t quite imagine what we are going to cook!  I am so used to having our garden food available in some form or another year-round.  Matt and I cleaned out our cold storage yesterday and found a treasure trove of garden products.  Perfect produce preserved in various mediums ready whenever we want… chutney, relish, jam, wine, and the best surprise… our very own raw apple cider vinegar.

IMG_2767Since we can’t take all our garden produce and preserves with us on our trip, we are selling what we can at our new self-serve farm stand in our garage.  I stock it up on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays when we are around, but you can stop by anytime and see what we have!  Leave your money in the jar and if you don’t see something you want, don’t hesitate to ask.  It has been a lot of fun sharing our garden bounty!

 

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Time to Start Some Seeds!

I know it’s hard to believe… we haven’t had much of a “real” winter here yet, but the calendar doesn’t lie.  It’s February and it’s time to start some seeds.  In fact, I should have gotten the onions and leeks started earlier, but I was on vacation in Mexico.  Gardeners need their sun, you know.

IMG_3228This weekend I managed to slip out to the greenhouse. Last year I had some problems with damping off, where your seedlings die just as they germinate.  It’s caused by a number of different pathogens which can hide in your used pots and seed-starting trays.  So, I decide to sterilize my cell-packs this year.  I grab two 5-gallon buckets of water… one with a bleach solution and one for rinsing.  I put the cell-packs in the bleach solution, making sure they are in complete contact with the water, and let them soak for at least 10 minutes.

Meanwhile, I find my potting soil.  I use Pro-Mix which I get in big bales at Alaska Mill and Feed.  It is more economical than buying small bags and already has mycorrhizae in it, which is a fungus that forms a symbiotic relationship with the plant and helps them grow bigger and stronger.

IMG_3232When potting soil comes out of the bag it is dry, dry, dry.  It is so dry that it will repel water.  I moisten it before I fill my cell packs or pots, otherwise, I will never get it evenly moist and my seedlings will suffer.  I dump my potting soil into a big plastic tote, pour some water in, and mix it up.  I keep pouring and mixing until there are no dry spots left and it is about as wet as a wrung-out sponge.  I gather a handful of soil and squeeze it into a ball.  No water runs out, and when I open my hand, it stays in a nice ball.  Perfect.  TIme to fill the seed trays.

IMG_3226I use plastic cell packs like the ones you buy at the nursery to start my seeds.  I can fill a whole tray with soil and plant it in no time.  They are convenient and easy to move around.  And when I plant, the seedlings pop right out.  I do not mess with individual pots, paper pots, egg shells, and especially not the peat pots that are so popular lately.  They will not break down fast enough in our cool soils and the plants will suffer.

I rinse the bleach off of the cell packs, put them in the trays, then fill them with potting soil.  I mound the potting soil on, then brush the excess off the top.  Each cell is evenly filled to the top… not packed too tight.  Then, because Matt is inside with the kids and my hands are cold, I bring the trays inside to plant.  Onions, leeks, celery, tomatoes, peppers, and herbs.

It feels deeply satisfying to have the trays stacked up in the corner, waiting to germinate.  Each flat holds a potential for 72 (or more) food-bearing plants that will fill our bellies this summer and fall. It is a promise that winter will soon give way to spring.  That we will soon feel the heat of the sun on our back as we sink our hands into the earth and breathe deeply.

 

The Paradigm Shift

I was recently interviewed for an article in Alaska’s hot monthly arts and culture magazine, F-zine.  Riza, the journalist writing the story, asked me a lot of great questions about Permaculture, but the one that stumped me the most was “Why do you do it? Do other people who share your interests have different reasons?”

Wow, that is a hard question.  I can’t imagine NOT doing it.  It is just a way of life, a way of thinking about the world.  I see abundance and possibility everywhere… not just in my garden, but also in this city and in this world.  Permaculture is a vision of regenerative abundance, of every person being able to provide for their own basic human needs of food, shelter, clothing, and convivial human contact while improving the environment around them.  It is about empowering people to make the world a better place instead of feeling victimized or waiting for the government to do it.

I suppose some people who have gardens may not see this big vision… they may do it for many other reasons such as saving money, eating tasty nutritious food, fresh air and exercise, and/or plain old enjoyment, but to me the garden is just one manifestation of the the big vision.

Besides, who wouldn’t want a beautiful, abundant oasis in the city?

I realized after I wrote this that I’ve made the shift from someone who thinks and talks about Permaculture to someone who lives it.  I’m not saying that I live totally sustainably, yet, but through action it has become my dominant paradigm.  And from the grandfather of Permaculture himself, I leave you with this quote:

“…the greatest change we need to make is from consumption to production, even if on a small scale, in our own gardens. If only 10% of us do this, there is enough for everyone.

Hence the futility of revolutionaries who have no gardens, who depend on the very system they attack, and who produce words and bullets, not food and shelter.”

– Bill Mollison